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External trade policy of the EU: WTO and RTA's

Informacje ogólne

Kod przedmiotu: 2105-EPE-L-D4ETPE Kod Erasmus / ISCED: 14.6 / (0312) Politologia i wiedza o społeczeństwie
Nazwa przedmiotu: External trade policy of the EU: WTO and RTA's
Jednostka: Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Studiów Międzynarodowych
Grupy: European politics and economics - DZIENNE I STOPNIA 4 semestr 2 rok
Punkty ECTS i inne: 3.00
Język prowadzenia: angielski
Rodzaj przedmiotu:

monograficzne
obowiązkowe
seminaria monograficzne

Założenia (opisowo):

(tylko po angielsku) The student learns the mechanism of creating the EEC customs union; he/she gets to know and understand how the main instruments and principles of the EU common commercial policy work. The student learns the liberalization of trade policy in the course of the next GATT / WTO rounds and the policy of general preferences and bilateral EU. The student is able to explain the mechanisms and consequences of the use of individual trade policy instruments, including anti-dumping duties and subsidies, and the consequences of concluding preferential trade agreements.

Tryb prowadzenia:

lektura monograficzna
zdalnie

Przedmiot dedykowany programowi:

4EU+KURSY

Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

In the first part the seminar will include the elements of political economy of trade policy, the international trade rules of the GATT/WTO system, dispute settlement system of the WTO, techniques of trade negations, the history of multilateral (GATT/WTO) negotiations

In the second part the participants will get acquainted with the practice of EU trade policy in the context of WTO rules. In the area of trade relations, the Member States (principals) have delegated the competence to negotiate to the Commission (agent). Examples of recent negotiations of the European Union (TTIP and Brexit) will be discussed as well.

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

Detailed description of lectures:

No. 1 The role of GATT/WTO system in the post war trade liberalization.

The history of international trade policy organizations: the concept of International Trade Organization (ITO), creation of the GATT (1947) and its transformation into WTO since 1994.

Lit overview.

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. , chap. 1 & 2

• Bagwell K., Bown C., and Staiger R. (2016). Is the WTO Passé? Journal of Economic Literature, 54(4), 1125–1231.

No. 2 Basic rules of international trade policy: the role of tariffs

The principle of non-discrimination and reciprocity as the best rules for international trade negotiations, the role "bound" tariffs, measures of the reciprocity in trade negotiations

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 4 &5

• Saggi, K. (2004). Tariffs and the most favored nation clause. Journal of international economics, 63(2), 341-368.

• Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis (2001) Economic and legal aspects of the Most-Favored-Nation clause, European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 17 pp. 233–279.

• P.J. Lloyd (2001) The architecture of the WTO, European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 17 pp. 327–353

No. 3 Other instruments of trade policy: Anti-dumping and countervailing duties

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 5

• Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: 38th Annual Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the EU's Anti-Dumping, Anti-Subsidy and Safeguard activities and the Use of trade defence instruments by Third Countries targeting the EU in 2019; Brussels, 30.4.2020 COM(2020) 164 final

• WTO: World Trade Report 2012 Trade and public policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century; https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr12_e.htm

• Brenton, P. (2003) Anti-dumping policies in the EU and trade diversion, European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 17, PP. 593–607.

No. 4 Other instruments of trade policy: technical barriers to trade (TBTs) and Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary measures (SPS)

The increasing role of technical and sanitary regulations in correcting market imperfections in order to protect health and life of the consumers. At the same time TBT and SPR regulations can drastically limit the access to the regulated market.

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 5

• Technical Barriers to Trade, WTO report: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tbt_e/tbt_e.htm

• EU gateway to TBT: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/barriers-to-trade/tbt_en

• Hagemejer, Jan and Michalek, Jan (2006) Standardization union effects: the case of EU enlargement, MPRA, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/22989/

• UNCTAD: The Course on Dispute Settlement in International Trade, WTO Technical barriers to trade: https://unctad.org/en/Docs/edmmisc232add22_en.pdf

• The WTO gate way to SPS agreement: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/sps_e.htm

• WTO: World Trade Report 2005, Trade, standards and the WTO: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr05_e.htm

No. 5 WTO rules regarding preferential trading agreements.

Economic integration as an exception to the GTATT principle of non-discrimination. The content and interpretation of art. XXIV of GATT. The proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs)

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 10.

• WTO: World Trade Report 2011, The WTO and preferential trade agreements: From co-existence to coherence, https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr11_e.htm

No. 6 Trade disputes and their resolution in the framework of GATT/WTO system

Enforcing trade contracts, the problem of reciprocity, optimal a remedy system for breach of trade agreements that specifies less-than-proportional retaliations against deviating parties. The WTO Agreement on Dispute Settlement (DS) Understanding: rules and steps of dispute resolutions, example of DS cases.

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 3

• Beshkar, M. (2016), Arbitration and Renegotiation in Trade Agreements, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Vol. 32, 3 , pp. 586–619, https://doi.org/10.1093/jleo/eww001

• Beshkar, M. (2010). Optimal remedies in international trade agreements. European Economic Review, 54(3), 455-466.

• Maggi, G., & Staiger, R. W. (2011). The Role of Dispute Settlement Procedures in International Trade Agreements. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(1), 475-515.

• Beshkar, M. (2011). Arbitration and Renegotiation in Trade Agreements. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization Advance Access published February 19, 2016

No. 7. Rules of EU trade policy: the role of Commission in the light of Lisbon Treaty

Changes in external trade policy decision making in the EU. These exclusive competence of the EU Commission. The role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of trade in the common external action of the EU.

Lit:

• Meunier S. and Nicolaïdis K. (2002), Who Speaks for Europe? The Delegation of Trade Authority in the EU https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00174

• Meunier S. and Nicolaïdis, K. (2006) ‘The European Union as a Conflicted Trade Power’. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 906–25

• Duina, F. (2019) ‘Why the excitement? Values, identities, and the politicization of EU trade policy with North’, Journal of European Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678056

• European Commission (2010) ‘Trade, Growth and World Affairs: Trade Policy as a CoreComponent of the EU’s 2020 Strategy’, COM 612, November 9. European Commission (2017a) ‘Reflection Paper on Harnessing Globalisation’, COM (2017) 240, May 10.

No. 8 The EU as a partner in trade negotiations

The exclusive competence of the EU commission in trade policy: the concept of “managed globalization”. EU’s trade policy, like other areas of EU policy-making has become more politicized (Leblond 2019)

Lit.:

• Sophie Meunier, 2007, Managing Globalization? The EU in International Trade Negotiations, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2007 Vol. 45. Number4. pp. 905–926

• Andreas Dür, And Hubert Zimmermann, Introduction: The EU in International Trade Negotiations, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2007 Vol. 45. Number 4. pp. 771–787

• Elgström, Ole, Outsiders' Perceptions of the European Union in International Trade Negotiations: Journal of Common Market Studies Vol 45 No. 4, pp. 949- 967, 2007

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2001) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. The WTO and beyond. Oxford UP. Chap. 10.

• Leblond P. and Viju-Miljusevic C. (2019), EU trade policy in the twenty-first century: change, continuity and challenges, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 12, 1836-1846; https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678059

• Duina, F. (2019) ‘Why the excitement? Values, identities, and the politicization of EU trade policy with North’, Journal of European Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678056

No. 9 Techniques of international trade negotiations.

Identification and development of negotiation goals and strategies, identification of parties (stakeholders) and their respective interests, development of multiple options that will maximize the probability of positive outcomes, language and technicalities of negotiations, “national” cultures and approaches to negotiations, development of specific skills in the crucial areas.

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. Chap. 4.

• Monning W. & Feketekuty G. (2002) International Trade Negotiations Training Manual on line: http://www.commercialdiplomacy.org/pdf/manual/InternationalTradeNegotiations.pdf

• Day J. (2012) International Negotiations Trainer’s Notes (2012) Cambridge University Press. www.cambridge.org/elt/internationalnegotiations

No. 10 Multilateral trading system: the evolution of approaches to tariff negotiations

The country-by country and product-by-product negotiations in early GATT rounds, Initial Negotiating Rights (INRs), Principal supplier, Safeguards, Global approaches to trade negotiations: linear and harmonized reduction of tariffs, the position of developing countries

Lit.:

• Ossa, R. (2011). A “New Trade” Theory of GATT/WTO Negotiations. Journal of Political Economy, 119(1), 122-152.

• Croome, J. (1999) Reshaping the World Trading System: A History of the Uruguay Round, Kluver Law International.

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2001) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. The WTO and beyond. Oxford UP. Chap. 4.

• Hertel T, Hoekman B, Martin W (2002), Developing countries in the New Round of WTO negotiations, The World Bank Research Observer, vol. 17, no. 1, p.113-140

No. 11 Multilateral trading system: the evolution of approaches to non-tariff measures and agricultural negotiations

QRs and VERs , commitments regarding subsidies and domestic support, approaches to the reduction of restriction of TBTs, The role of standards in international trade, standardization union, empirical estimates. The high protection in agriculture: The WTO Agreement on Agriculture , “tariffication” of NTB’s, commitments regarding subsidies.

Lit.:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2001) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. The WTO and beyond. Oxford UP. Chap. 9.

• Croome, J. (1999) Reshaping the World Trading System: A History of the Uruguay Round, Kluver Law International, chap. III,

• Fontagné, L., Guillin, A., & Mitaritonna, C. (2011), Estimations of Tariff Equivalents for the Services Sectors. CEPII Working Papers No. 24, CEPII, Paris.

• Diaz-Bonilla E., Thomas M., Robinson S. (2000), Food Security And Trade Negotiations in the World Trade Organization: A Cluster Analysis Of Country Groups, International Food Policy Research Institute, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

No. 12 Multilateralism vs. regionalism: recent negotiations

The failure of WTO Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations. Why TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) negotiations started and failed?

Lit.:

• Hoekman, B. (2011) "The WTO and the Doha Round: Walking on Two Legs," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 68, pages 1-6, October

• Francois, J. Hoekman, B. (2015) Introduction to the Symposium Issue on Structural Issues at the World Trade Organisation, World Trade Review (2015), 14: 1, 1–5, Cambridge University Press,

• Fontagné, L., Gourdon, J. & Jean, S. (2013). Transatlantic Trade: Whither Partnership, Which Economic Consequences? CEPII Policy Brief No. 1, CEPII, Paris.

• Hoekman, B. (2004) "Developing Countries and the WTO Doha Round: Market Access, Rules and Differential Treatment," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 19, pages 205-229.

• Shayerah S.I., Vivian C. Jones V.C. & Johnson R. (2016), Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, February 29, 2016, Congressional Research Service

• Centre for Economic Policy Research (2013): Reducing Transatlantic Barriers to Trade and Investment. An Economic Assessment, Joseph Francois (project leader), Prepared under implementing Framework Contract TRADE10/A2/A16.Ecorys (2014): Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the European Union and the United States of America. Draft Inception Report. Study for the European Commission, DG Trade.

No. 13 The Brexit negotiations

The political economy of Brexit vote, From soft to hard Brexit, early studies of Brexit trade and economic implications.

Lit.:

• Cambridge Econometrics (2018) Preparing for Brexit, Final Report.

• KPMG (2018), Impact of non-tariff barriers as a result of Brexit,

• BREXIT 2016, Policy analysis from the Centre for Economic Performance, June 2016, London School of Economics and Political Science

• Van Reenen J. , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brexit’s Long-Run Effects on the U.K. Economy, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Fall 2016, p. 367-383.

No. 14 The EU trade policy: major challenges ahead:

• Enhancing the key EU’s role in the multilateral system of open and fair trade based on global rules that are effective, enforceable and create a level playing field.

• Overseeing the Commission’s role in reforming the WTO.

• To strengthen the EU’s global leadership in trade and increase its capacity to protect itself from unfair trade practices.

• Ensuring better use of trade defence instruments, a level playing field in procurement and a new system for screening Foreign Direct Investment.

• Responsibility for upgrading the EU’s Enforcement Regulation to enable sanctions in cases of illegal measures and simultaneous blocking of WTO dispute settlements.

• Addressing distortive effects of foreign subsidies in the internal market.

• Chief Trade Enforcement Officer: to monitor the compliance of trade agreements.

• Leading work to finalise negotiated trade agreements, conclude those ongoing and proposing to open new bilateral or multilateral agreements where appropriate.

• Monitoring climate, environment and labour protection measures enshrined in the EU’s trade agreements, with zero-tolerance of child labour.

• Contributing to design the Carbon Border Tax, in compliance with WTO rules.

• Ensuring the highest levels of transparency and communication, with the co-legislators, Member States and civil society.

Lit.:

• European Commission (2017) ‘A Balanced and Progressive Trade Policy to Harness Globalisation’, COM 492), final, 13 September.

• Hübner, K., Deman, A.S. and Balik, T. (2017) ‘EU and trade policy-making: the contentious case of CETA’, Journal of European Integration 39 (7): 843–57.

• Kerr, W.A. and Viju-Miljusevic, C. (2019) ‘European Union adapting to an era of no ruling trade’, European Foreign Affairs Review 24(3): 387–404. Leblond P. and Viju-Miljusevic C. (2019), EU trade policy in the twenty-first century: change, continuity and challenges, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 12, 1836-1846; https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678059

__________________________

The student has knowledge about the principles of the world postwar trade order formulated in the framework of GATT and later within the WTO system. The student knows the basic economic theory and rules of international trading system. He also knows history, rules and techniques of multilateral rounds of negations within the GATT. The student knows the role of the European Commission in managing international trade negotiations. He also knows some cases of disputes solved within WTO and the specific problems of recent trade negotiations (e.g. TTIP and Brexit).

On the basis of the course, the student learns the way of functioning of the GATT/WTO system. The student understands the objectives and tasks of WTO and the rules of international trade negotiations. He also knows how international negotiations reflect national interests and how they can be managed at international scene.

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

Basic general literature on WTO and trade policy of the EU:

• Hoekman B., Kostecki M. (2009) The Political Economy of the World Trading System. Oxford UP. R. Baldwin,

• Baldwin R, Wyplosz, Ch. (2015) The economics of European Integration, 2008

• Molle W. (2017) The Economics of European Integration: Theory, Practice, Policy, Fifth edition, Routledge

• El-Agraa (2011) The European Union: Economics and Policies, Cambridge UP

• Wiener A, ‎ Börzel T, ‎Thomas Risse T. (eds) (2019), European Integration Theory, Oxford UP.

• McDonald F., Dearden D. (eds) 2005 European Economic Integration, Fourth edition (), Longman 2005.

• Elsig M, (2002), The EU’s Common Commercial Policy: Institutions, Interests and Ideas, January 2002,: Ashgate Publisher, ISBN: ISBN 0 7546 3227 X

Papers & documents:

• Duina, F. (2019) ‘Why the excitement? Values, identities, and the politicization of EU trade policy with North’, Journal of European Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678056

• Dür, A., Eckhardt, J. and Poletti, A. (2019) ‘Global value chains, the anti-globalization backlash, and EU trade policy: a research agenda’, Journal of European Public Policy. doi:10.1080/13501763.2019.1619802

• European Commission (2010) ‘Trade, Growth and World Affairs: Trade Policy as a CoreComponent of the EU’s 2020 Strategy’, COM 612, November 9. European Commission (2017a) ‘Reflection Paper on Harnessing Globalisation’, COM (2017) 240, May 10.

• European Commission (2017b) ‘A Balanced and Progressive Trade Policy to Harness Globalisation’, COM 492), final, 13 September.

• Hübner, K., Deman, A.S. and Balik, T. (2017) ‘EU and trade policy-making: the contentious case of CETA’, Journal of European Integration 39 (7): 843–57.

• Kerr, W.A. and Viju-Miljusevic, C. (2019) ‘European Union adapting to an era of no ruling trade’, European Foreign Affairs Review 24(3): 387–404.

• Leblond P. and Viju-Miljusevic C. (2019), EU trade policy in the twenty-first century: change, continuity and challenges, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 12, 1836-1846; https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678059

• Leblond P. and Viju-Miljusevic C. (2019), EU trade policy in the twenty-first century: change, continuity and challenges, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 12, 1836-1846; https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678059

• Leblond, P. (2016) ‘Making the Most of CETA: A Complete and Effective Implementation Is Key to Realizing the Agreement’s Full Potential’, CIGI Papers No. 114, Waterloo, ON: Centre for International Governance Innovation, available at https://www.cigionline.org/publications/making-most-ceta-complete-and-effective-implementation-keyrealizing-agreements-full-0 (accessed 26 August 2019).

• Malmström, C. (2018) ‘Saving the WTO’, Speech by EU Trade Commissioner to the German Marshall Fund, Washington, DC, 13 November, available at https://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2018/november/tradoc_157494.pdf (accessed 4 September 2019).

• Meunier S. and Nicolaïdis K. (2002), Who Speaks for Europe? The Delegation of Trade Authority in the EU https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00174

• Meunier S. and Nicolaïdis, K. (2006) ‘The European Union as a Conflicted Trade Power’. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 906–25

• Schmidt, V.A. (2019) ‘Politicization in the EU: between national politics and EU political dynamics’, Journal of European Public Policy 26 (7): 1018–36.

• Young, A.R. (2019) ‘Two wrongs make a right? The politicization of trade policy and European trade strategy’, Journal of European Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1678055

• European Commission (2017b) ‘A Balanced and Progressive Trade Policy to Harness Globalisation’, COM 492), final, 13 September.

Efekty uczenia się: (tylko po angielsku)

The student learns the mechanism of creating the EEC customs union; he/she gets to know and understand how the main instruments and principles of the EU common commercial policy work. The student learns the liberalization of trade policy in the course of the next GATT / WTO rounds and the policy of general preferences and bilateral EU. The student will also learn the GATT/WTO rules regarding creation of the RTAs (regional trade agreements).

The student is able to explain the mechanisms and consequences of the use of individual trade policy instruments, including anti-dumping duties and subsidies, and the consequences of concluding preferential trade agreements.

The student can explain the relationship between the goals of governments and domestic interest groups and the mandates of trade negotiators. He can explain how international trade negotiations are managed and how the specific position of the European Union is formulated and presented. He understands the relationship between rule enforcement and function of the dispute settlement system of the GATT/WTO. He can also explain the basic rules and techniques of international trade negotiations. He understands the social aspects of international negotiations.

Another objective of the seminar is to help students explore potential thesis’ topics in these areas. The grading is based on written essays. Students actively participating in the lectures will receive a premium for the final grade.

Metody i kryteria oceniania: (tylko po angielsku)

Two possible forms of the final grading (essays):

1. The essay (policy paper) analyzing two dispute cases solved by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of the WTO. The analysis should be based on the reports of the panels and Appellate Body (AB) of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU). The paper should cover the conflicts in which the EU was actively participating. The trade dispute regarding the application of preferably the same instruments or the same sector of international trade and contain the analysis of the economic background of the conflict and resume covering both cases. The exact topic and outline of the paper must be accepted by the lecturer.

2. The policy paper describing the negotiation position and arguments of the EU Commission covering specific sector of TTIP or Brexit negotiations (e.g. agriculture, SPS, regulatory issues, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals). The students should afterwards make a presentation and explain the negotiation game to professor and other students (representing the other side of negotiators). The precise topic and outline of the paper must be accepted by the lecturer.

3. The activity of students during the seminar will also be taken into account in the process of final grading.

Praktyki zawodowe: (tylko po angielsku)

No

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2020/21" (zakończony)

Okres: 2021-02-22 - 2021-06-13
Wybrany podział planu:


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Typ zajęć: Konwersatorium, 30 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Jan Michałek
Prowadzący grup: Jan Michałek
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Zaliczenie: Przedmiot - Egzamin
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Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Warszawski.