Ethics and genetics
|Kod Erasmus / ISCED:||
|Nazwa przedmiotu:||Ethics and genetics|
|Punkty ECTS i inne:||
The seminar is conducted in English. Therefore, students are required to have an appropriate level of proficiency in English, spoken as well as written
The seminar explores ethical and social issues raised by developments in human genetics.The course covers following topics: medicine in the era of genomics; moral status of human genes & genetic information; genetic exceptionalism; genetic discrimination; genetic privacy & the right not to know; ethics of genetic testing and counseling; ethics of genetic selection; ethics of genetic engineering; ethics of gene therapy; ethics of genetic enhancement; ethics of genetic research; genetics and distribuitive justice; genetic and criminal justice.
The seminar explores ethical and social issues raised by developments in human genetics. Its primary goal is to provide students with conceptual, theoretical and methodological tools necessary to understand and analyze problems of gen-ethics. Secondarily, it is designed to help students develop analytical and argumentative skills necessary for identifying, examining and resolving ethical dilemmas brought about by the advances in human genetics.
The course covers following topics: medicine in the era of genomics; moral status of human genes & genetic information; genetic exceptionalism; genetic discrimination; genetic privacy & the right not to know; ethics of genetic testing and counseling; ethics of genetic selection; ethics of genetic engineering; ethics of gene therapy; ethics of genetic enhancement; ethics of genetic research; genetics and distribuitive justice; genetic and criminal justice.
These topics are analyzed mainly from an ethical perspective. However, since gen-ethics is an interdisciplinary field, attention is paid to their medical, legal, political, and sociological aspects as well. The course is conducted in a seminar format. It involves teaching methods such as short interactive lectures, students’ presentations, discussions, group works, text analyses, and case analyses.
-- Medicine in the Era of Genomics
Required Readings: Melman J.M., Botkin J.R., Access to the Genome. The Challenges for Equality, Georgetown University Press, Washington 2007: chapter 2-4: 7-54.
-- Moral Status & Human Genes
Required Readings: Warren M.A., The Moral Status of the Genes [in:] Burley J., Harris J. (eds.) A Companion to Genethics, Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. 2002: 147-157; UNESCO, Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Right, 1997.
Optional Readings: Adorno R., Human Dignity and the UNESCO Declaration on the Human Genome, 2003; Ossorio P.N., The Human Genome as Common Heritage: Common Sense or Legal Nonsense?, Journal of Law Medicine and Ethics 2007, 35(3):425-39. [OR] Dawson K., Fertilisation and Moral Status, Journal of Medical Ethics 1987, 13: focus on “The genetic argument”: 173-175; Liao M. S., The Basis of Human Moral Status, Journal of Moral Philosophy 2010,7: 159-179.
-- Genetic Exceptionalism and Genetic Discrimination
Required Readings: Murray T., Genetic Exceptionalism and "Future Diaries". Is Genetic Information Different from Other Medical Information? [in:] M. Rothstein (ed.), Genetic Secrets. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in the Genetic Era, Yale University Press 1997: 60-73; Green M.J., Botkin J., 'Genetic Exceptionalism' in Medicine: Clarifying the Differences between Genetic and Nongenetic Tests, Annals of Internal Medicine 2003 138(7): 571-5.
Optional Readings: Rothstein M.A., Anderlik M.R., What is Genetic Discrimination, and When and How can it Be Prevented?, Genetics in Medicine 2001, 3: 354-358; Faden R., Kass N., Genetic Screening Technology: Ethical Issues in Access to Tests by Employers and Health Insurance Companies, Journal of Social Issues 1993, 2(49): 75-88.
-- Ethics of Genetic Counseling & Testing
Required Readings: Clarke A.J., Genetic Counseling, in: Chadwick R. (ed.), The Concise Encyclopedia of the Ethics of New Technologies, Academic Press 2001: 131-147.
Optional Readings: Robertson S., Savulescu J., Is There a Case in Favour of Predictive Genetic Testing in Young Children?, Bioethics 2001 15(1): 26-49; Malpas P.J., Predictive Genetic Testing of Children for Adult-Onset Diseases and Psychological Harm, Journal of Medical Ethics 2008 34: 275-278.
-- Genetic Privacy and the Right Not to Know
Required Readings: Bowels Biesecker B., Privacy in Genetic Counseling, [in:] M. Rothstein (ed.), Genetic Secrets. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in the Genetic Era, Yale University Press 1997:108-125.
Optional Readings: Chadwick R., The Philosophy of the Right to Know and the Right not to Know, [in:] Chadwick R, Levitt M, Shickle D (eds), The Right to Know and the Right not to Know, Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997: 12-21; Adorno R., The Right not to Know: an Autonomy Based Approach, Journal of Medical Ethics 2004, 435–439; Sommerville A., English V., Genetic Privacy: Orthodoxy or Oxymoron?, Journal of Medical Ethics 1999 (25)2:144-51. [OR] Rhodes R., Genetic Links, Family Ties and Social Bonds: Rights And Responsibilities in the face of Genetic Knowledge, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1998, 23: 1-30; Takala T., Häyry M., Genetic Ignorance, Moral Obligations and Social Duties, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1998, 1(25): 107-113.
-- Prenatal Genetic Selection
Required Readings: Robertson J.A., Procreative Liberty in the Era of Genomics, American Journal of Law & Medicine 2003, vol. 29: 439-487.
Optional Readings: Holm S., Ethical Issues in PGD in: Harris J., Holm S. (eds.), The Future of Human Reproduction: Ethics, Choice, and Regulation, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1998: 176-190.
Botkin J., Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 1998 26(1): 17-28. [OR] Wertz D.C., Fletcher J.C., Fatal Knowledge? Prenatal Diagnosis and Sex Selection, The Hastings Center Report 1989 19(3): 21-27; McDougall R, Acting Parentally: an Argument Against Sex Selection, Journal of Medical Ethics 2005, 31: 601-605. [OR] King D., Why We Should not Permit Embryos to be Selected as Tissue Donors, [in:] Kuhse H., Singer P. (eds), Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd Ed., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford 2006: 158-161; Sheldon S., Wilkinson S., Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?, Journal of Medical Ethics 2004 (3): 533-537; [OR] Davis D.S., Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future, The Hastings Center Report 1997 (27)2: 7-15; Tukala T., The Child’s Right to an Open Future and Modern Genetics [in:] Almond B., Parker M. (eds.), Ethical Issues in the New Genetics, Are Genes Us?, Burlington, Ashgate 2003, pp. 39-53.
-- Prenatal Genetic Testing and Parental Responsibility
Required Reading: Purdy L.M., Can Having Children be Immoral?, [in:] Kuhse H., Singer P. (eds.), Bioethics. An Anthology, Blackwell Publishers 1999: 123-129.
Optional Readings: Steinbock, B., Wrongful Life and Procreative Decisions, [in:] Roberts M., Wasserman D. (eds), Harming Future Persons. Ethics, Genetics and the Nonidentity Problem. Springer, Dordrecht 2009: 155-178; Steinbock, B., The Logical Case for "Wrongful Life", Hastings Center Report 1986 (16)2: 15-20. [OR] Savulescu J., Procreative Beneficence: Why we Should Select the Best Children, Bioethics 2001 5/6(15): 413-26; De Melo-Martin I., On our Obligation to Select the Best Children – a replay to Savulescu, Bioethics 2004, vol. 18, nr 1: 72-83
-- Ethics of Genetic Modifications & Genome Editing
Required Readings: Hayry M., Categorical Objections to Genetic Engineering – a Critique [in:] Dyson A., Harris J. (eds.) Ethics and Biotechnology, Rutledge, London-NY 1994: 202-215.
Optional Readings: Lappé M., Ethical Issues in Manipulating the Human Germ Line, [in:] Kuhse H., Singer P. (eds.), Bioethics. An Anthology, 2nd Ed., Blackwell 2006: 198-208; Zimmerman B.K., Human Germ-Line Therapy: The Case for its Development and Use, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1991, 16: 593-612. [OR] Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Genome Editing: an Ethical Review, 2016 [selected parts].
-- Ethics of Gene Therapy
Required Readings: Hedgecoe A., Gene Therapy, in: Chadwick R. (ed.), The Concise Encyclopedia of the Ethics of New Technologies, Academic Press 2001:123-9.
Optional Readings: Elliot R., Genetic Therapy, Person-regarding Reasons and the Determination of Identity, Bioethics 1997, 11(2): 151-160; Persson I., Genetic Therapy, Person-Regarding Reasons and the Determination of Identity – a Reply to Robert Elliot, Bioethics 1997, 11(2): 161-9.
-- Ethics of Genetic Enhancement
Required Readings: Murray T., Enhancement, [in: ] B. Steinbock (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics, New York 2009: 491-513; Savuleascu J., Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings, [in: ] B. Steinbock (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics, New York 2009: 514-536.
Optional Readings: Bostrom N., In Defence of Posthuman Dignity, Bioethics 2005 19(3): 202-14; Bostrom N., Transhumanist Values, Review of Contemporary Philosophy 2005, 4.
-- Ethics of Genetic Research
Required Readings: Caulfield T., McGuire A.L., Cho M., Buchanan J.A., Burgess M.M., et al., Research Ethics Recommendations for Whole-Genome Research: Consensus Statement, PLOS Biology 2008, 6(3): e73.
Optional readings: Kimmelman J., Gene Transfer and the Ethics of First-in-Human Research, Cambridge University Press 2010, 8-47. [OR] Ravitsky V, Wilfond B. Disclosing individual Genetic Results to Research Participants, AJOB 2006;6(6):8–17; Affleck P., Is it Ethical to Deny Genetic Research Participants Individualised Results?, Journal of Medical Ethics 2009;35:209-13; Bredenoord A.L. at al., Disclosure of Individual Genetic Data To Research Participants: The Debate Reconsidered, Trends in Genetics 2011, 27(2): 41-47.
-- Criminal Justice and Behavioral Genetics
Required Readings: Levitt M. and Manson N. (2007) ‘My genes made me do it? The implications of behavioural genetics for responsibility and blame’ HealthCare Analysis 15(1): 33-40.
Optional Readings: Baum, The Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genetic Predisposition to Impulsive Violence: Is It Relevant to Criminal Trials?, Neuroethics ; Bernet et al., Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, and Testimony Regarding MAOA and SLC6A4 Genotyping at Murder Trials, Journal of Forensic Science 2007 52(6): 1362-1371.
-- Distributive Justice and Genetics
Required Readings: Buchanan A., Brock D.W., Daniels N., Wikler D., From Chance to Choice. Genetic and Justice, Cambridge University Press, New York 2000: Chapter 3: Gene, Justice and Human Nature.
Optional Readings: Farelly C., The Genetic Difference Principle, The American Journal of Bioethics 2004, 4(2), 2004: W21-28; Habermas J., The Future of Human Nature, Polity Press 2003 (selected parts).
|Efekty uczenia się:||
At the end of the course student:
‒ has knowledge and understanding of interdisciplinary concepts applied in contemporary discussions dealing with genethics;
‒ is acquainted with the main ethical questions and problems of clinical genetics and genetic research;
‒ has well-structured knowledge of main philosophical and normative approaches as well as main argumentation strategies used in contemporary discussions concerning genethics;
‒ thoroughly appreciates the role of ethics in clinical genetics and genetic research;
‒ understands the importance of sociocultural, legal, political and economic factors in the practice and development of clinical genetics and genetic research.
‒ analyses texts and arguments dealing with the seminar subject;
‒ identifies, interprets and analyses problems and moral dilemmas related to the seminar subject;
‒ formulates sound argumentation, both factual and normative, and is able to defend his or her point of view;
‒ prepares oral presentations on the seminar subject;
‒ prepares written analyses of texts on the seminar subject;
‒ demonstrate an ability to communicate in English at B2+ level.
‒ appreciates the importance and value of discussions for the development of knowledge and solving of moral dilemmas raised by modern genetics;
‒ has ability to cooperate in a group;
‒ takes and initiates research activities, is able to plan and organise their course;
‒ is reliable, considerate and engaged in planning and carrying out research activities;
‒ identifies moral problems related to research activities and related to gen-ethics;
‒ values importance of ethical reflection for modern genetics;
‒ is interested in new moral debates and disputes regarding the seminar subject.
|Metody i kryteria oceniania:||
The final grade will be based on:
(1) ACTIVITY: insightful participation in the seminar discussions and class group works, demonstrating student’s knowledge and understanding of terminology, problems, precepts and arguments discussed, her familiarity with the assigned reading as well as her analytical, argumentative and communicative skills – 40%;
(2) ORAL PRESENTATION of a seminar topic, freely selected from the provided list, demonstrating student’s knowledge and understanding of the topic, her analytical and argumentative skills as well as her ability to develop and deliver effective oral presentation in English – 30%;
(3) WRITTEN CRITICAL ANALYSIS of a text on a seminar topic, freely selected from the provided list – 30%
A ‘5’ grade will require consistent insightful participation in seminar discussions, drawing upon readings and personal experiences, as well as excellent oral presentation and written work demonstrating students’ mastery of the cases, terminology, precepts and principles discussed.
Final grades will be assigned on the following percentages:
100-90% – 5,0; 89-85% – 4,5; 84-75% – 4,0; 74-70% – 3,5; 69-60% – 3,0; 59-0% – 2,0
Attendance will be monitored on weekly basis. Two (2) absences are allowed per semester.
Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr letni 2022/23" (zakończony)
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Warszawski, Wydział Nauk Ekonomicznych.